Physical Medicine/ Physiotherapy has something to do with physical function i.e. The Musculoskeletal System & the Neurological system of the human body.
Physical Rehabilitation is one of those developing fields in medicine.
Physical Medicine has everything to do with the physical abilities of the patient. The indication is mainly in patients who are facing longtime immobilization. Further, who will now face difficulties in performing what they could do earlier with ease?
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PMR) aims at enhancing the functional ability. Also, the quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. Functional Re-education is the name of the rehabilitation. PMR targets those areas of the body, which are potentially weak. Hence, they do not allow to carry out their Activities Of Daily Living (ADL) Adequately & Efficiently.
One of the most used techniques used in Functional Re-education is Mat Exercises. Also, patients with Neurological Deficits use the process.
Mat exercises are functional exercises on the mat. However, the patient can either do it on his own or with some assistance. These exercises help preserve the memory of movement to the patient. They do it with passive movements stimulating receptors of kinesthetic sense.
The activities performed on the mat are:
- Bridging (Makes Bed-Pan Routine easier)
- Functional Activities such as Changing positions i.e. Supine to Side Lying to Prone Lying to Prone Kneeling to Kneel Sitting to Kneeling & Finally Sitting, and then progressing to Standing.
It also includes management of Musculoskeletal Conditions such as Bones & Joint Fractures, Diseases such as Osteomyelitis, Rheumatism, Ligament & Tendon Tears as well as avulsions.
As far as Musculoskeletal System is concerned, physical therapy includes management of diseases. Furthermore, it includes Acute as well as chronic conditions such as Osteo/Rheumatoid Arthritis, Spondylosis (Cervical, Lumbar) Mechanical Lower Back Pain, Sacro-Iliac Joint (SIJ) Dysfunction and bony injuries.
A therapist usually makes use of following interventions:
- Application of Therapeutic Currents such as SSF (Strong Surged Faradic Current), TENS (Trans-Cutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation), IFT (Interferential Therapy).
In case of Pain Relief
- Application Of Ultra-Sound & Low-Intensity Laser/UVR Therapy
This is done wherein healing & repair is required.
In case lower limbs are amputated due to some reason, the goal of Rehabilitation is to teach the patient, to continue his/her ADLs. However, it is done at least in such a way, so that the patient is not completely dependent on someone.
One of the key protocols includes Gait Training using Crutches (Crutch Walking using Axillary/Elbow/Gutter Crutches or Sticks & Walkers)This involves measurement of the crutch according to the patient, strengthening of the uninvolved parts of the body, as well as counseling.
Counseling is also an essential part of physical rehabilitation, as in managing such cases, there are chances that patient might experience depression, or may indulge in other acts which are socially unacceptable.