Diabetes is a disorder, which is increasing day by day. It is a pandemic disease that means crossing the national boundaries so far.
Diabetes is mainly classified into two types:
Type 1: It is an autoimmune condition indicating where the body produces cells which act against it and destroys insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas.
Type 2: There is insulin resistance.
There is also something called as gestational diabetes which means increased blood sugar levels after the 20th week of pregnancy.
The function of insulin is to break down glucose(sugar) and transport it to the muscle and fat cells where it is used as a source of energy. In short, insulin decreases the amount of glucose in the blood. So when there is no insulin, the blood glucose level rises, which is called as hyperglycemia which gives rise to the three classical symptoms of diabetes namely polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria(increased urine) and polyphagia( increased hunger).
To diagnose, you need to check the blood glucose level in the fasting and post lunch state.
There is another test known as the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.
Urine is also to be checked for glucose.
Once diagnosed, the treatment depends upon the type of diabetes. For type 1, insulin is given. And for type 2, oral drugs are preferred.
Along with taking insulin/medicines on time, there are several other things that a person with diabetes has to take care of.
A diabetic person has to follow a strict diet to ensure that his blood sugars stay within the normal range. Along with that he also has to avoid obesity. For that regular exercise is a must.
Regular eye checkup:
Eye check-up has to be done every year. The reason being, a condition called diabetic retinopathy in which there is involvement of blood vessels of the eye causing small bleeds eventually leading to scarring and loss of vision. It can also lead to a condition called glaucoma which means the intraocular pressure increases.
Kidney function test:
It starts with a small amount of protein in the urine (in healthy people, protein is not seen in the urine). Eventually, the kidney stops functioning. The condition is called diabetic nephropathy.
In diabetes, there is decrease/loss of sensation called as diabetic neuropathy. This can lead to ignorance of small wounds on the sole, which can lead to spreading of the injury, which can get infected and in grave conditions, the foot might have to get amputated. To avoid this, every night the foot has to be inspected. The effort has to be taken to keep the foot clean.
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Monitor blood sugar level
Every diabetic person should take it as his responsibility to ensure that his blood sugars are always in the normal range. A lot of the complications mentioned above can be avoided by doing that, especially if he also suffers from hypertension.
Carry an identity card
A little up down in the blood sugar level can lead to fainting episodes. Hence its always better to carry an identity card so the relatives can be informed and the card should also mention that he has diabetes so correct treatment can be given.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder for which there is no complete cure. But by taking care of the things mentioned above, a person with diabetes can lead an almost normal life.